An electric fence is a barrier that uses electric shocks to deter animals or people from crossing a boundary. Most electric fences are used to enhance the security of sensitive areas, such as military installations, prisons, and other security sensitive places, for agricultural fencing and other forms of animal control.
Electric fences are designed to create an electrical circuit when touched by a person or animal. The energizer converts power into a brief high voltage pulse. One terminal of the power energizer releases an electrical pulse along a connected bare wire about once per second. Another terminal is connected to a metal rod implanted in the earth, called a ground or earth rod. A person or animal touching both the wire and the earth during a pulse will complete an electrical circuit and will conduct the pulse, causing an electric shock. The effects of the shock depend upon the voltage, the energy of the pulse, the degree of contact between the recipient and the fence and ground and the route of the current through the body.